Good Stress vs. Bad Stress

Did you know stress can be good for you? In fact, not only can stress be good for you, stress can be motivating, exciting, and even thrilling. So, when your heart is racing and palms are sweating while trying to meet that deadline, do not panic. Our bodies have a way of protecting us from these moments in life.

For example, a neurotransmitter called oxytocin—also known as the cuddle hormone—is released by the pituitary gland when we are racing against the clock, for example. This stress hormone acts on both our brain and our body—motivating us to reach out to people for support, while at the same time calming our body.

Oxytocin also relaxes the cardiovascular system, aids in the reduction of inäammation—a leading cause of chronic pain and illness—and helps to regenerate new heart cells. In other words, oxytocin strengthens our hearts, both literally and ãguratively.

It is when stress becomes “chronic distress” that it can be harmful to one’s health. Fear, unrealistic expectations, worrying about the future, repetitive thought patterns, over-scheduling, isolating, or procrastination can all turn what was once positive stress into negative distress. As a result, our mental and physical health can become compromised.

If the stress in your life has turned to distress, no worries. There is hope. Because negative stress is a response to an adverse situation or event, not the negative event itself, you have control over how you respond. In other words, it is not stress, per se, that wreaks havoc on your mental and physical well-being, but how you choose to deal with that stress. Therefore, it is imperative to learn healthy ways to manage negative stress.

Below are a few simple strategies for reducing distress put out by the American Psychological Association (APA):

Identify what’s causing stress. Monitor your state of mind throughout the day. If you feel stressed, write down the cause, your thoughts and your mood. Once you know what’s bothering you, develop a plan for addressing it. That might mean setting more reasonable expectations for yourself and others or asking for help with household responsibilities, job assignments or other tasks. List all your commitments, assess your priorities and then eliminate any tasks that are not absolutely essential.

Build strong relationships. Relationships can be a source of stress. Research has found that negative, hostile reactions with your spouse cause immediate changes in stress-sensitive hormones, for example. But relationships can also serve as stress buffers. Reach out to family members or close friends and let them know you’re having a tough time. They may be able to offer practical assistance and support, useful ideas or just a fresh perspective as you begin to tackle whatever’s causing your stress.

Walk away when you’re angry. Before you react, take time to regroup by counting to 10. Then reconsider. Walking or other physical activities can also help you work off steam. Plus, exercise increases the production of endorphins, your body’s natural mood-booster. Commit to a daily walk or other form of exercise — a small step that can make a big difference in reducing stress levels.

Rest your mind. According to APA’s 2012 Stress in America Survey, stress keeps more than 40 percent of adults lying awake at night. To help ensure you get the recommended seven or eight hours of shut-eye, cut back on caffeine, remove distractions such as television or computers from your bedroom and go to bed at the same time each night. Research shows that activities like yoga and relaxation exercises not only help reduce stress, but also boost immune functioning.

Get help. If you continue to feel overwhelmed, consult with a psychologist or other licensed mental health professional who can help you learn how to manage stress effectively. He or she can help you identify situations or behaviors that contribute to your chronic stress and then develop an action plan for changing them.

Mindfulness is Not Just a Buzzword

Like green goddess juice and Bikram yoga, mindfulness is trending right now. This approach to deliberate living in the now is popular for good reason. Studies show that being mindful not only reduces stress and boosts the immune system, this state of awareness helps to regulate emotions, as well as reduce chronic pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances and ruminating, a leading cause in depression.

Studies also show that mindfulness lowers levels of anxiety and improves memory, learning, rational thinking, empathy and compassion, all while increasing peace and meaning in one’s life. These findings are significant especially when researchers from Carnegie Mellon University recently found that people’s self-reported stress levels have increased as much as 30% in the last three decades as we become more connected to the outer world—phones, email, and social media—and less connected to ourselves.

What is mindfulness exactly? Jon Kabat-Zinn, professor of Medicine emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, and developer of mindful-based stress reduction (MBSR) defines mindfulness as “the awareness that arises by paying attention on purpose, in the present moment, and non-judgmentally.”

Daniel Siegel, clinical professor of psychiatry at the UCLA School of Medicine and Executive Director of the Mindsight Institute has a similar definition. He describes mindfulness as a “quality of receptivity that is different from every day awareness.” It is intentional, living in the now, being aware, and awakening to experience and can be used as a catalyst for any kind of change, whether it be personal, career oriented, financial or even spiritual.

When we are mindful, for example, we observe our thoughts, feelings, processes, and experiences from a distance without making judgments. We notice our feelings without being swept away by them. We ride the waves of energy and information flow by simply being aware of patterns rather that freaking out over them. In other words, we respond instead of react. This mindful response, in turn, leads to better life-affirming choices around health, family, and career. Not surprisingly, when we are not mindful—when we let life happen to us automatically—we make poorer choices when it comes to health, family, and career.

There are several ways one can practice being mindful in their everyday lives. Here are a few suggestions:

Breathe: Servan Schreiber, in his book Anticancer, called breath the “gateway to the inner self. (2009, p. 164). Like digestion and our heartbeats, breathing is the only completely autonomous bodily function free of the conscious mind. Yet studies show that when we consciously regulate our breathing—breathe in, one, two, three, breathe out, one, two three, four, five—we are more connected to our bodies and our minds.

Meditation: Mediation is the practice of turning your attention to a single point of reference. It can involve focusing on the breath, on bodily sensations, or on a word or phrase known as a mantra. As you turn your attention away from distracting thoughts and focus on the present moment, not only are you impacting your mental, emotional, and physical well-being, you are changing your brain.

If you think you do not have time to meditate, think again. In 2012, Moore, Gruber, Derose and Malinowski found that as little as ten minutes a day for 16 weeks significantly improved neural functioning, self-regulation, and focused attention. If you think you are too busy to mediate, then as an ancient proverb suggests, you should sit for an hour.

Yoga: Yoga is a whole-body experience that goes back over five thousand years in India. This ancient practice integrates the breath with stretching exercises, postures, and meditation which in turn creates harmony between the mind and body. Studies show that yogic practices enhance muscular strength and body flexibility, promote and improve respiratory and cardiovascular function, reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and chronic pain, improve sleep patterns, and enhance overall well-being and quality of life. Some individuals even discover far reaching results such as an internal stillness and greater awareness of a spiritual side of themselves.

Visualization: Visualization is the act of directing your thoughts on a positive image in your mind with the goal of improving your emotional, physical, mental and/or financial well-being. In fact, this technique has been shown to improve performance of any kind. For example, athletes are using visualization to imagine the actual physical motions—dancing, figure skating, making that defensive tackle or swooshing a three pointer—before performing them, which in turn helps to improve their game.

For more information on mindfulness, check out John Kabat-Zinn’s book Mindfulness for Beginners: Reclaiming the Present Moment—and Your Life.

Happiness is a Conjunction!

“Happiness is completely and utterly intertwined with other people,” writes Eric Weiner, world traveler and author of The Geography of Bliss. After traveling the globe and interviewing both ordinary people and hundreds of “happiness experts”, Weiner found that our relationships with family, friends, neighbors, and even the local coffee barista, add to our overall happiness and well being.  In fact, Weiner writes, “Happiness is not a noun or verb. It’s a conjunction. Connective tissue.”

In addition, when we are feeling connected to one another, not only are we happier, we are better able to fight off illnesses such as the flu and, yes, cancer.

Research confirms this link in a 2006 study of over 3,000 nurses. The findings: Women with breast cancer who could name at least ten friends had a four times better chance of surviving cancer than women who could not. Interestingly, you did not need to live next door to these friends. It was not about geographical proximity. Studies show that a longer life span was a result of an overall feeling of connectedness to others, whether they lived half-way around the world or in the same city.

What about Facebook? A 2016 study found that when students update their Facebook status—like, post, share, or comment—they reported lower levels of loneliness. Researchers believe that the drop in reported loneliness is linked to feeling more socially connected. According to researcher Moira Burke, however, participants who only lurked reported an increase in feeling lonely, isolated, and depressed. And other studies have shown that Facebook can cause one to feel left out, thus the expression FOMO (Fear of Missing Out).

Another study of 736 men in Sweden came up with similar findings to the nurse’s study, but on the flip side. Lack of social support was found to predict all causes of mortality. In fact, mortality had little to do with the etiology of the disease and had much more to do with lack of social ties. The study also found that lack of social support had the same risk factor of smoking. Other studies have confirmed these findings showing that strong social connections increase longevity by 50%, help us recover from disease faster, and improves overall physical and psychological health.

Steve Coleshows, Professor of Medicine and Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences in the UCLA School of Medicine found that genes impacted by social connection also code for immune function and inflammation. Simply stated, social connection strengthens our immune system. Again, the reverse is also true. Loneliness can weaken it. After controlling for baseline health status, researchers found that risk of death increased for individuals with a low quantity, and sometimes low quality, of social relationships.

“Social isolation is the public health risk of our time,” says psychologist Susan Pinker. Unfortunately, Pinker explains, only “a third of the population says they have two or fewer people to lean on. It is a biological imperative to know that we belong. Building and sustaining a village is a matter of life and death.”

Not only do relationships and a feeling of connectedness help extend our lives, but studies show people who feel connected have higher self-esteem, and are more empathetic, trusting, and cooperative compared to less connected people. Sometimes this is a self-fulfilling prophesy, however. Less connected people tend to isolate themselves, leading to further isolation. More socially connected people reach out; thus a positive feedback loop occurs, and these people find themselves with more opportunity for social engagement.

Below are some tips taken from Mental Health America to help you create a plan to make, keep, and strengthen connections in your life:

  • Make a short list of friends and family members who are supportive and positive. Also include a list of people you feel the need to stay in touch with regularly such as parents, a close friend or adult child who lives far away, or an aging relative who lives alone.
  • Make a commitment to yourself to call, email or get together with them on a schedule that’s reasonable for you. Try to reach out to make at least one emotional connection a day, but plan realistically. In cases of long distance, consider using web-based ways of keeping in touch, like Skype or Facebook.
  • Share what’s on your mind honestly and openly. Talk about your concerns in a straight-forward way, but try to keep it constructive. Try to be direct about what you need – for example a sympathetic ear, help solving a problem, a fresh perspective, new ideas or a good laugh. Don’t hesitate to ask for the kind of help you’d like. Ask what other people think about your situation, and show them you value their opinion.
  • When you talk, also listen. Ask about someone else’s day, or follow up on the topic of a previous conversation. Showing sincere interest in another person’s life builds relationships and listening to other people’s concerns can often shed a new light on your own challenges. Offer help or advice if asked – listen and respond.
  • Make social plans. Create opportunities to strengthen your relationships with fun things that both you and your friend or relative will enjoy. Looking forward to special activities boosts our spirits, gives us energy and makes us more productive.

You may find that among people you hardly know, one or more can become trusted friends you can rely on—and support—in good times and bad. Even if you feel that you’re so busy you don’t have time to keep up with family and friends you already have, it doesn’t take much time to make new friends. If you’re shy and hesitant about meeting new people, just a few questions can get a conversation going. Think about neighbors you pass regularly, co-workers, people in your exercise class, a cousin you’ve lost touch with, or those who volunteer in the same organizations you do. If you don’t already have people you can talk with regularly about what’s on your mind, it’s worth the effort to build connections for your emotional health. If you find yourself anxious or timid about social interaction, you may want to consider talking to a therapist or counselor to build your confidence in social situations. (taken from

For more on social connection and living longer check out the following TED Talk.


We are Designed to Move Our Bodies

Today’s sedentary lifestyle is wreaking havoc on our health. According to James A. Levine, a pioneering spirit paving the way for research on the negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle, any extended sitting, such as sitting at one’s desk or behind the wheel of one’s car, can be harmful to our health including increasing the risk of cancers.

Our bodies are designed to move. Certain parts of our body such as the lymphatic system, for example, cannot function properly without physical movement. Our lymphatic system is made up of over 600 vessels and nodes intricately woven together in a complicated but exquisite network and is responsible for detoxifying our bodies by transporting fluids, allocating proteins, and removing cellular debris and foreign material. Because the lymphatic system does not have an in-house pump (the heart) like the circulatory system, these vessels require muscle contraction for it to move and do its job properly. Thus, when we move, the lymph system moves. When we don’t move, the lymph system can become stagnant and cells will literally fester in their own waste.

We can avoid this from happening by simply moving our bodies. Studies show that aerobic activities such as jumping rope or bouncing on a trampoline is extremely beneficial to getting the lymph system moving as well as fostering blood flow throughout our bodies delivering much needed nutrients to all our vital organs.

Not only will exercise of all types help the body fight cancer and other diseases, exercise slows down the release of stress hormones, boosts the immune system, and helps maintain a healthy body weight. The American Cancer Society (2011) recommends thirty to sixty minutes of exercise five days per week. Not only will you be healthier, feel happier and have more energy, but you will be more focused and productive both at work and at home.

This is because physical exercise improves neural functioning, self-regulation and focused attention. How? When we move our bodies, oxygen is pumped into our brains giving us more energy as well as a feeling of euphoria. This is partly due to the endorphin lift we get from exercising. Endorphins act as analgesics or pain killer. They also have a sedative effect relaxing us after a busy day (why I call exercise my happy pill). These feel good chemicals are released in the brain no matter what your choice of activity—golf, aerobics, or dancing—and they all contribute to a healthier, happier you.

Like everything, however, when it comes to exercise, balance is key. Too much exercise can actually result in an increase of stress hormones (cortisol and adrenaline), and in turn decrease white blood cell activity which is responsible for fighting disease. What is too much?  Exercise that is intensive and long term. Rigorous exercise can have negative effects on the body. It can also result in feeling overwhelmed and increase the risk of quitting. When in question, if you are experiencing injuries, exhaustion and depression, you may be working out too much.

And how will you know if you are exercising enough? It is recommended that to get the most bang from your physical activity of choice, break a sweat, but don’t drown in it. Moderation is essential! Studies on exercise and breast cancer, for example, show that simply walking two to five hours each week at a normal speed helps prevent relapse.

So get out of your chairs and move. Walk around the office or walk around the block, but move your body throughout the day!

Positive Thinking is a Super Power

Wonder Woman has her lasso. Humans have positive thinking. In fact, positive thinking is one of our strongest superpowers. The cool thing about this superpower is that it fosters optimism, and optimism gives us a feeling of hope and confidence in the future.

Positive thinking works best when we acknowledge that difficult events will occur in our lives. We know that everything doesn’t always automatically work out, but we carry on and take action anyway. And when we take action—embracing possibilities and looking for solutions, instead of feeling hopeless and giving up—our lives are not only improved, but some studies suggest that our lives can be extended.

If thinking positively is not your strong suit, no worries. Like resilience, positive thinking is a skill. This is good news. That means anyone can learn how to embrace this mental attitude. Even the pessimist in you!

To begin, it is important that we first recognize where we may be limiting our thoughts so that we can change them. For example, if that little voice inside your head keeps telling you that you can’t do something, flip it and reverse it. Tell yourself that you can, and you will. Because the more we believe that we can do something, the more we will start looking for ways to make it happen.

As you practice these positive skills, you will find that you are able to solve problems that may have seemed impossible before taking on this new mindset. In addition, you will notice that your attitude will improve overtime. In fact, as you learn to monitor your thoughts and attitude, you will gain more control of your behaviors and your life.

Dr. Judith Moskowitz, a professor of medical social sciences at Northwestern’s Feinberg School of Medicine, and colleagues—through their studies of positivity and its effect on mental and physical health—found a strong correlation between positivity and quality and quantity of life (2014). Moskowitz is not alone in her findings. Other studies show similar results. In fact, having a positive outlook on life has been shown to lower the risk of heart disease, contribute to better weight control, drop blood sugar, and reduce stress and inflammation, all while boosting the immune system.

Even those dealing with a life-threatening illness such as cancer can improve the quality of their lives through positive feelings. But be careful. This does not mean the opposite is true; that we can cure ourselves with positive thoughts alone or that we somehow caused our illness. This belief can create victim blaming which is not helpful to anyone when they are dealing with difficulties in life such as cancer.

If you are feeling some pressure to be positive when you are experiencing a highly stressful event in your life, I highly encourage you to let the expectation to be positive go. There are times when you simply need to cry, and that is okay. Maintaining a positive attitude 24/7 is unrealistic and can add to the emotional weight you may already be carrying. Feelings of sadness, stress, frustration, anxiety, and fear, for example, are all a normal part of life. Don’t beat yourself up when you are feeling down. Instead, embrace them and move on when you are ready.

There is “a time to weep, a time to laugh; a time to mourn, and time to dance” (Ecclesiastes 3:4).

The Power of Resilience

Even though it has been almost eight years since my cancer diagnosis, I speak a lot about my journey. Why! 1) My experience with cancer has made me who I am today. 2) It is my desire to give back and help others, and 3) I have realized that many people relate to my story. Not because of cancer, however. They relate to my story because they relate to the journey itself, and the immense amount of strength and resilience one can gain as a result of trekking through difficult situations in one’s life.

Resilience is a person’s capacity to manage stress and cope with crisis and adversity. Resilience is a healthy adjustment to a setback. Resilience is rebounding more quickly and harnessing one’s own inner strength. Resilience is personal growth, and it is powerful stuff!

George Bonanno, professor of Clinical Psychology from Columbus University says when someone is hit with loss or trauma as a result of relationship issues, health problems, or workplace and financial worries, for example, it is resilience that gets them back on track.

Not surprisingly, resilient people tend to be more flexible, view set-backs as temporary, practice being grateful, seek support from others and take care of themselves. If one lacks resilience, however, they may tend to feel like a victim, become overwhelmed easily, and dwell in the negative, sometimes even choosing unhealthy and self-sabotaging behaviors such as substance abuse, overeating, or other avoidant mechanisms and distractions.

If you feel that resilience is not your strong suit, no worries, you are not doomed. Bouncing back is a process, not a character trait. In other words, resilience is learned. Unfortunately, learning to be resilient requires a few blows. But as you learn to roll with the punches that life delivers, you in turn get stronger. So the idiom, “what doesn’t kill you makes you stronger,” is not so far from the truth.


Things That Matter Most

As a writer, Associate Professional Clinical Counselor, Success, Culture and Communications Coordinator at Online Trading Academy, cancer survivor, and mother of three grown children, I would like to take this opportunity to share a few things I have learned over the years. Things I wished I learned instead of algebra. Things I wished my parents told me, but I wouldn’t have listened if they did. Things I know I can’t teach my kids, but I try anyway. These are the things that matter most. Things I want to share with you as a reminder of what is important in this life.

This is MY list. I do not assume that what matters most to me matters most to you. But I have a feeling that we are not all that different from each other. I know this list is not complete. This is “Part One” of many. Take what you want, and leave the rest.

Things That Matter Most

You are one of a kind, an original. Out of the 7 billion people on this planet, no one has your talents, your abilities, your body, your mind or your spirit.

Live a life worth living, a life full of possibilities, a life that matters. No regrets!

Take care of your body. For your body is a hallmark of your story.

Write a good story. And don’t be afraid to revise it from time to time.

Eat whole foods, exercise daily, go outside, and breathe deep the fresh air and sunshine.

Keep learning, reading, travelling and saying “yes” to the world. There are teachers everywhere and learning moments in every experience, good and bad.
Embrace them both.

Think outside of the box. Better yet, get rid of the box altogether.

Be creative. Keep busy. Boredom is a symptom of the unimaginative.

Do not spend more than you earn.

Do not listen to that annoying little voice in your head. It’s just an annoying little voice. Instead, go deeper. Listen to the voice that knows–the voice with power, the one true voice. It will not lead you astray. It knows what is best for you, even if you don’t. And the more you pay attention to it, the easier it gets.

When that voice (not the annoying little one) is telling you to do something, and you are scared to death to do it, do it anyway. Fear is just fear. That’s all. Do not let it keep you from your dreams.

Take risks. Make mistakes. Put yourself out on a limb. Do not be afraid to make a fool of yourself. Do not be afraid to be wrong. You will miss out on a full and meaningful life if you play it safe. Don’t miss out!

Learn to live with the anxiety that comes with not missing out. Get good at feeling uncomfortable. Discomfort is normal. It means you are living.

Do not anesthetize with food, alcohol, social media or another person. Do not fall for distractions, fantasies and quick fixes. “A life lived only in search for highs will prove in the end to be a transient superficial life.” James Hollis

Accept that we truly know nothing. Accept the fact that everything on this list could change next year. Accept that you will never know all the answers. The one thing that is for sure is that nothing is for sure. Embrace this ambiguity. It is a sign of being a grown-up.

Grow up!

Be open! Open your heart. Open your arms. Open! Unlock the mysteries within. Break down your walls. If you have to, get that sledgehammer out…

And love…love with all your heart. Love like Moses, Jesus, Mohammed and Buddha combined. Love until it hurts. And it will hurt.

And when it hurts, go ahead and cry. “…you know that a good, long session of weeping can often make you feel better, even if your circumstances have not changed one bit.” Lemony Snicket

Be the compassion you want to see in this world. Feel other’s suffering. Be empathetic. Do not judge.

Loneliness is a human condition.

Solitude is the cure.

There is no magical other. I repeat, there is no magical other. Do not expect someone to take care of you, validate you, rescue you, or complete you. Only you can complete you!

Don’t take anything personally. Toltec wisdom says, “Nothing others do is because of you.”


Live and let live.

Let go and forgive. Forgive others and most of all forgive yourself.

Anger and resentment are self-destructive. You are the one that suffers.

You cannot control another human being. And no one can control you.

You are the boss of you. Take personal responsibility for yourself. No one can protect you from necessary choices. The choices are yours alone. You own them. Take a stand. Be empowered.

Have a say in your own life.

You do not need permission.

Live with integrity. Be impeccable with your word. Don’t assume anything and always, always do your best.

Do not assume that if you are a good person and you live a good life that life will be good to you.

The Universe does not work that way.

Life is not fair. And that is okay.

When life is not happening the way you want, when it is moving slowly or not moving at all; be patient. Allow things to happen without forcing an outcome.

And be happy!

Happiness is inside of you. It is not out there. It is a state of being. Elusive, like trying to catch a butterfly, it bounces on the air here and there, occasionally landing on a random flower or you, then flutters away bouncing off into the air again, usually just out of your reach. Be thankful when it lands. And when it flies away, know that it will land again.

Be grateful.

It’s all about the journey.

And, never ever ever give up! As Odysseus reminds us in his hero’s voyage, “I will stay with it and endure through suffering hardship, and once the heaving sea has shaken my raft to pieces, then I will swim.”

Swim, my fellow travelers, swim.

You’ve got this!


Are you waiting to be happy? Maybe you tell yourself once I get that raise I will be happy, or once I hit the next sales target I will be happy or once I buy my dream house, lose ten pounds, or fall in love, I will be happy. Success first, happiness second. There is a problem with this thinking. It is backwards. Over a decade of research in neuroscience and psychology shows that happiness and optimism is a precursor to success not the other way around. In fact, happiness and optimism actually give us a competitive edge in business and in life that international bestseller Shawn Achor calls the Happiness Advantage.

According to Achor, when we are positive, we become more engaged, creative, motivated, energetic, resilient and productive!

One of the best ways to train your brain to think more positively is to make a daily list of the good things in your job, your family, and your life. It may sound ridiculously simple—because it is simple—but studies show over and over again that writing a gratitude list every day has a profound effect on the way our brains are wired.

When you write down three good things—only three—that happened that day, your brain literally scans the last 24 hours of your life for any potential positive moments—things that brought you joy, made you smile, feel like you accomplished something, strengthened a connection with a co-worker or family member, and/or gave you hope for the future. This simple five-minute practice trains the brain to notice possibilities and opportunities for personal and professional growth. And when you notice the opportunities, you can seize on them.

Not only will you notice and take advantage of opportunities, a wonderful byproduct of practicing gratitude is that our brains begin to push out all the small annoyances and frustrations. In other words, you learn to not stress over the small stuff, because the good stuff is so much better.

This holiday season, embrace all that you are grateful for and enjoy the good stuff life has to offer.

About Shawn:

Recently, Shawn sat down with Oprah at her house to discuss the science of happiness, defining success and how we can bring the powerful research-based techniques of positive psychology to the world. To share the message that happiness is a choice, Shawn and The Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN) created an in-depth, two-part Happiness Course to help individuals impact their own lives and the lives of those around them with the Happiness Advantage.

Shawn’s research on happiness made the cover of Harvard Business Review, his research and work on stress in partnership with Yale University at UBS was published in The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and his PBS special has been seen by millions. Shawn has worked with over a third of the Fortune 100 companies, as well as the NFL, the NBA, the Pentagon and the White House. His talks have taken him to more than 50 countries, where he has spoken to CEOs in China, doctors in Dubai, schoolchildren in South Africa, and farmers in Zimbabwe.

Author: Deanne Brown